By American Association for the Advancement of Science, National Research Council, Division on Earth and Life Studies, Board on Life Sciences, Policy and Global Affairs, Security, and Cooperation Development, Committee on Assessing Fundamental Attitudes of
A similar applied sciences that gas clinical advances additionally pose power risks--that the data, instruments, and strategies won via valid biotechnology study can be misused to create organic guns or for bioterrorism. this can be known as the twin use problem of the existence sciences. but even study with the best strength for misuse may possibly provide major advantages. making a choice on the best way to constrain the risk with out harming crucial clinical study is necessary for nationwide defense in addition to prosperity and overall healthiness. This booklet discusses a 2007 survey of yank organization for the development of technology (AAAS) individuals within the lifestyles sciences approximately their wisdom of twin use concerns and attitudes approximately their obligations to assist mitigate the hazards of misuse in their learn. total, the implications recommend that there is massive aid for ways to oversight that depend upon measures which are built and applied via the clinical neighborhood itself. The responses additionally recommend that there's a have to make clear the scope of analysis actions of shock and to supply suggestions approximately what activities scientists can take to minimize the danger that their learn should be misused via people with malicious reason.
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Additional resources for A Survey of Attitudes and Actions on Dual Use Research in the Life Sciences: A Collaborative Effort of the National Research Council and the American Association for the Advancement of Science
Released in October 2003, the committee’s report, Biotechnology Research in an Age of Terrorism (also known as the Fink report after the chair of the committee, Gerald Fink of Massachusetts Institute of Technology [MIT]), was published as a book a few months later (NRC 2004a). Box 1-2 contains a summary of the report’s major recommendations. 13 The only statistic available regarding changes in research communication in response to dual use research of concern is that, of the 16,000-plus manuscripts reviewed by the 11 journals of ASM since it began screening manuscripts for dual use research, only 4 manuscripts have actually been modiﬁed in any way (these were published with minor modiﬁcations) and only 2 others were not published because the authors were unwilling to provide full methodological details, which the ASM regards as essential (Kaplan 2008).
And life expectancy has been increasing. Moreover, with regard to national security, research activities in the life sciences are vital for providing essential protection against infectious diseases and bioterrorism through understanding pathogenesis and host–agent (pathogen or toxin) interactions, and the development of vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostics. In many areas, advances in the life sciences, enabled by government investments such as those by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) have led to economic development in the United States, which contributes to national security and national prosperity.
Several journals adopted formal policies to consider dual use and the potential for misuse of the information in the manuscript during the review. Today, the Nature Publishing Group, PNAS, the ASM journals, and Science have policies in place on biosecurity. Though these policies are not uniform, they signify the concern regarding science and security among high-impact journals. At a session on ethics in publishing held at the 2008 AAAS meeting, Donald Kennedy suggested that security issues OVERVIEW 19 were likely to intrude upon the peer-review process in a way that leaves editors with little control (Timmer 2008).