# AC power systems by Whitaker, Jerry C

By Whitaker, Jerry C

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Additional info for AC power systems

Example text

The exhaust is reheated in the boiler and returned to the lower-pressure units. Both the rotor and the stationary part of the turbine have blades. The length of the blades increases from the steam entrance to the exhaust. 36 shows the blade arrangement of an impulse-type turbine. Steam enters through nozzles and flows through the first set of moving rotor blades. The following stationary blades change the direction of the flow and direct the steam into the next set of moving blades. The nozzles increase the steam speed and reduce pressure, as shown in the figure.

2 Power Generating Systems Electrical power can be produced in many ways, including chemical reactions, heat, light, or mechanical energy. Most electrical power produced today is through hydroelectric plants, nuclear energy, and by burning coal, oil, or natural gas. Fossil fuel and nuclear-fission plants use steam turbines to deliver the mechanical energy required to rotate large three-phase generators, which produce massive quantities of electrical power. Generators used in such facilities usually are classified as highspeed units, operating at 3600 rpm to produce a 60 Hz output frequency.

The distributed capacitances and leakage inductances can be largely neglected. 6 Application Considerations Transformers are the most common pieces of equipment found in utility substations and distribution systems. Different types of transformers are used for varied purposes, from voltage level changes to phase angle regulation [3]. Because the primary circuits of distribution systems are designed for high voltages (in order to increase their load-carrying capability), the voltage must be stepped down at the consumer service entrance.