By Ronald J. Deibert, John G. Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Jonathan Zittrain
Many nations world wide block or filter out net content material, denying entry to information—often approximately politics, but in addition when it comes to sexuality, tradition, or religion—that they deem too delicate for usual voters. entry Denied records and analyzes net filtering practices in over 3 dozen nations, supplying the 1st carefully carried out research of this accelerating development. web filtering occurs in a minimum of 40 states around the world together with many nations in Asia and the center East and North Africa. similar net content material keep watch over mechanisms also are in position in Canada, the U.S. and a cluster of nations in Europe. Drawing on a just-completed survey of worldwide web filtering undertaken by way of the OpenNet Initiative (a collaboration of the Berkman middle for web and Society at Harvard legislation college, the Citizen Lab on the collage of Toronto, the Oxford web Institute at Oxford collage, and the collage of Cambridge) and counting on paintings through nearby specialists and an intensive community of researchers, entry Denied examines the political, criminal, social, and cultural contexts of web filtering in those states from a number of views. Chapters speak about the mechanisms and politics of web filtering, the strengths and boundaries of the know-how that powers it, the relevance of overseas legislations, moral issues for firms that offer states with the instruments for blockading and filtering, and the consequences of web filtering for activist groups that more and more depend on net applied sciences for speaking their missions. studies on net content material legislation in 40 diversified nations stick with, with each one kingdom profile outlining the kinds of content material blocked via type and documenting key findings. Contributors : Ross Anderson, Malcolm Birdling, Ronald Deibert, Robert Faris, Vesselina Haralampieva, Steven Murdoch, Helmi Noman, John Palfrey, Rafal Rohozinski, Mary Rundle, Nart Villeneuve, Stephanie Wang, and Jonathan Zittrain
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Additional resources for Access Denied: The Practice and Policy of Global Internet Filtering
Internet filtering, the core focus of this book, and the related matter of online surveillance, present an equally, if not more, fraught set of issues for global diplomats to address. Suppressing and Controlling Information on the Internet The idea that states would seek to control the information environment within their borders is nothing new. Freedom of expression has never been absolute, even in those liberal democracies that hold these freedoms most dear. The same is true of the related freedoms of 32 Jonathan Zittrain and John Palfrey association, religion, and privacy.
Therefore they block what is requested in the cheapest way using technology already integrated into their normal network environment. Blocking by IP can result in significant overblocking as all other (unrelated) Web sites hosted on that server will also be blocked. China uses IP blocking to obstruct access to at least three hundred IP addresses. This blocking is done at the international gateway level affecting all users of the network regardless of ISP. 9 The ISP ETC-MC in Ethiopia uses IP blocking to block, among other sites, Google’s Blogspot blogging service.
Locus of Filtering Most state-mandated filtering is effected by private ISPs that offer Internet access to citizens under licenses to operate in that jurisdiction. These licenses tend to include requirements, explicit or implicit in nature, that the ISPs implement filtering at the behest of the state. Some states partially centralize the filtering operation at private Internet exchange points (IXPs)—topological crossroads for network traffic—or through explicit state-run clearing points established to serve as gatekeepers for Internet traffic.