Biological Calcification: Cellular and Molecular Aspects by E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)

By E. D. Eanes, A. S. Posner (auth.), Harald Schraer (eds.)

The deposition of calcium-containing salts is a common phenomenon in either the plant and animal kingdoms. Its incidence indicates a generalized organic edition to environments wealthy in calcium. certainly, the Archaean ocean was once wealthy in calcium carbonate, and strains of historic organisms were present in lime­ stones predicted to be approximately 2. 7 billion years previous. the basic nature of organic calcification makes it a topic of curiosity not just to the scholar of calcium metabolism and skeletal body structure, but additionally to biologists ordinarily. As in lots of components of organic technology fresh growth during this box has been swift, and no try used to be made right here to hide the entire organic structures during which calcifica­ tion is a vital part of the organisms' approach to operation. Calcification is approached during this quantity on the degrees of the mobile websites and molecular mechan­ isms which are taken with this method. The ultrastructural and chemical positive factors of the cells and their items that are linked to calcification are empha­ sized in numerous chapters. The editor, in inviting contributions from authors, in­ tended that jointly the chapters may still express a feeling of the ever-present and crucial nature of the function of calcification in different phyla of the plant and animal kingdoms. The researchers have been biochemists, actual chemists, mobile biologists and physiologists; a few represented medication and dentistry; all have been attracted to calcification.

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This cleavage would create a fluid supersaturated with calcium and phosphate, causing the deposition of mineral (Robison and Rosenheim, 1934). , 1926; Robison, 1926) largely discredited the Robison theory (Gutman and Yu, 1949). Interest in the role of the matrix in mineralization was reawakened by the demonstration that the crystals in bone were highly oriented with respect to the collagen fibers. This in turn has led to studies on the chemical nature of the matrix related to its ability to calcify.

MARTIN, AND E. J. MILLER Laboratory of Biochemistry, National Institute of Dental Research, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Maryland Introduction . Collagen . Structural Aspects. Collagen and Mineral Enamel Protein . General Chemistry Structure and Relationship to Mineral Elastin Chemical and Structural Aspects Elastin and Mineral Concluding Remarks. Acknowledgment. , 1961a; Taves, 1963). Since mineral is normally deposited extracellularly, these observations may help to explain the manner in which the mineral phase of bone is formed and localized.

Cartier and Lanzetta (1961) carried out similar studies. In their investigations, about 53 percent of the €-amino groups were reactive at 97 percent demineralization. Complete demineralization made an additional 20 to 25 percent of the amino groups available. Approximately 25 percent of the f-amino groups were unreactive after complete demineralization. During this last stage of demineralization, pyrophosphate was also released. The ratio of unmasked amino groups to pyrophosphate Matrices That Calcify 37 was 2: 1, which was interpreted as indicating a bond between 2 basic groups and 1 pyrophosphate.

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