By H. R. Lerner (auth.), Dov Pasternak, Anthony San Pietro (eds.)
Historically, scientists and laymen have looked salinity as a hazar dous, dangerous phenomenon. This unfavourable view was once a important explanation for the inability of agricultural improvement of such a lot arid and semi arid zones of the realm the place the foremost assets of water for organic creation are saline. The overdue Hugo Boyko used to be most likely the 1st scientist in recent years to problem this typically held, pessimistic view of salinity. His study in Israel indicated that many crops should be irrigated with saline water, even at seawater energy, in the event that they are in sandy soil - a strategy which can open a lot barren land to agriculture. This new, even radical, method of salinity used to be basically enunciated within the booklet he edited and such a lot properly entitled 'Salinity and Aridity: New techniques to previous difficulties' (1966). A decade later, 3 individuals of the USA nationwide technology starting place (NSF), Lewis Mayfield, James Aller and Oskar Zaborsky, formulated the 'Biosaline Concept'; specifically, that bad soils, excessive sunlight insolation and saline water, which be successful in arid lands, could be seen as worthy assets instead of as negative aspects, and that those assets can be utilized for non-traditional creation of nutrition, fuels and chemical compounds. the 1st foreign Workshop on Biosaline study was once con vened at Kiawah Island, South Carolina, in 1977 by way of A. San Pietro.
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Additional resources for Biosalinity in Action: Bioproduction with Saline Water
39 Jeschke W D, Stelter W, Reising Band Behl R 1983 Vacuolar NalK exchange, its occurrence in root cells of Hordeum, Atriplex and Zea and its significance for KINa discrimination in roots. J. Exp. Bot. 34, 964-979. 40 Johanson J G and Cheeseman J M 1983 Uptake and distribution of sodium and potassium by corn seedlings. I. Role of the mesocotyl in sodium exclusion. Plant Physiol. 73, 153158. 41 Johanson J G, Cheeseman J M and Enkoji C 1983 Uptake and distribution of sodium and potassium by corn seedlings.
Supply of assimilates from the shoots. G. Export from the roots. H. Effect of mass flow of water on concentrations of solutes at the root surface and in the apoplast. I. Suberization of the epidermal cells to form an exodermis (monocots). In dicots the function of the endo/exodermis is performed by the periderm, and the endodermis may be lost. J. Bypass flow into the xylem. from the cortex to the stele to pass through the plasmalemma and into the symplasm. There are unresolved debates about the extent to which water and ion transport proceeds through passage cells or plasmodesmata, and about the relative contributions of apoplastic, symplastic and transmembrane (vacuolar) pathways of water and ion movement across roots 77.
G. flowering). Figure 4 attempts 26 GORHAM, WYN JONES AND McDONNELL 5ENE5CING LEAF 1-+ 10 Fig. 4. Transport processes operating at the whole·plant level. 1-4. Main pathway of water movement through the plant. 5. Xylem supply to other organs. 6. Selective solute redistribution via the phloem. 7. Phloem supply to developing, less vacuolated tissues and regions of low transpiration. 8. Selective recovery of nutrients from senescing leaves. 9. Salt excretion from leaves. 10. Salt excretion from roots.