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The essays that contain this assortment research the advance and impact of the British normal employees from the past due Victorian interval till the eve of worldwide conflict II. They hint the adjustments within the employees that motivated British army approach and next operations at the battlefield.
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Extra info for British General Staff: Reform and Innovation
Balfour recognised the ‘real evils’ of the present system, but foresaw ‘serious’ difficulties in changing ‘traditional methods of dealing with the Admiralty and the War Office’. He would, however, discuss Dilke’s letter with Salisbury, the Conservative Party leader. Balfour personally preferred a Cabinet committee rather than a new overarching ministry. So did Austen Chamberlain, who declared himself ‘favourably inclined…to the closer union between the two great departments of national defence, and the recognition of the responsibility of the professional advisers of the Cabinet on all questions of military and naval provision and administration’.
These two men were to serve as the professional advisers of the government on the Committee of Imperial Defence which had been created in December 1902. This committee of ministers with their professional advisers was established to consider the strategic needs of the empire. It had a permanent secretary and records of the discussions and decisions reached were kept. In January 1905 an army order was issued creating the General Staff. 51 Before 1899 Britain successfully waged war without a General Staff.
Their meetings tended to replace formal ones of the CID, which occurred less frequently sixteen times in 1906–08, roughly one-third the frequency of the previous three years. However, the CID (and its sub-committees) only advised the Prime Minister, who nominally determined its membership and indeed was its only permanent member. In Balfour’s words, it had no power ‘to give an order to the humblest soldier of His Majesty’s Army or the most powerful sloop under the control of the Admiralty’. It therefore fell well short of being a Ministry of Defence, but, as Hankey (its secretary from 1912 till 1938) observed, ‘we had in the CID the nucleus of a working system’.