Crystal Structure Analysis using Superposition, by E. Hohne

By E. Hohne

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The plateau of the curve represents the region where 33 Detectors / APPLIED VOLTAGE Figure 4-13. Relationship between applied potential and current flowlng in the detector. all ions formed are collected. The extent of this region depends upon the physical form of the detector, but it is always possible to operate the detector far enough along the plateau so that small changes in voltage have no effect on detector response. Effect of Electrode Geometry on Detector Response. It is obviously important that all the ions formed in the flame are collected.

Lovelock [20] has discussed the capturing properties of such steroids in relation to their biological activity. Detector Faults. Since the detector is highly sensitive to changes in operating conditions, it is essential that temperature and flow controls are adequate and operating properly. This being so, those faults 44 Ins trumen tation that can be corrected by the operator are concerned exclusively with the presence of impurities in the gas stream ente ring the detector. First, it is essential that the carrier gas be free from moisture and oxygen since those impurities will cause partial or complete loss of detector sensitivity.

That is, a current of 10- 11 A flowing in the detector will cause a full-scale deflection of the recorder pen. Many instruments provide for higher sensitivities, but these are often unusable owing to the noise generated in other parts of the apparatus which, of course, is amplified to the same extent as the signal from the sampie. For steroid work, at least, it is unlikely that sensitivities lower than 10-8 A will be required although many amplifiers provide ranges down to 10- 5 or 10- 6 A. Instrumentation 46 Voltage supplies for the detectors are associated with the electrometer amplifier for the reason that it is usually possible to derive stable DC voltages from the electrometer power supply.

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