Current Ornithology by Jeremy M. V. Rayner (auth.), Richard F. Johnston (eds.)

By Jeremy M. V. Rayner (auth.), Richard F. Johnston (eds.)

Volume five of this sequence keeps its assurance of presently lively re­ seek fields in ornithology. simply because an editor can by no means be a disin­ terested observer of his or her personal editorial efforts, any declare for su­ periority of this quantity isn't with out clash of curiosity. having said that, quantity five has convinced advantages that even a dad or mum may still recognize, and that i locate the present chapters no longer basically well timed and authoritative yet compelling of their call for for a reader's consciousness. Wolfgang and Roswitha Wiltschko offer a perceptive assessment of magnetic orientation in birds, a bit devoted to Fritz Merkel, the pioneer in experiences of magnetic orientation. Sergei Kharitonov and Doug­ las Siegel-Causey are interested by the behavioral ecology of seabird coloniality, emphasizing their box stories within the USSR and the U.S.. Ted Miller examines the applying of stories of chook habit to comparative biology, pursuing the interface of habit and evolutionary biology adumbrated by means of Konrad Lorenz within the Nineteen Thirties. Jeremy Raynor supplies us a precis of the paintings during the last decade on fowl flight, which isn't, by means of turns, as advanced or so simple as we had previously believed. Carrol Henderson describes contemporary advance­ ments in nongame chicken conservation, according to his pioneering paintings within the country of Minnesota. Alan Kamil discusses optimum experimental layout for learn in ornithology, a box during which experimental paintings is usually tricky to pursue.

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4. Electrophysiological recordings of muscle activity (which have rarely been attempted on flying birds) may provide further evidence; they have proved most informative in bats (Rayner, 1986a, 1987). However accurate they are as descriptions of flight mechanics, all of these mechanical power models have one serious limitation. They estimate the rate of working by the bird in terms of the rate of increase of kinetic energy of the air. Although this may reasonably be equated with power output from the flight muscles, its relation to metabolic energy flows and to flight respiration is tenuous.

In these figures, the convergences between major groups are yet more evident, and various patterns or trends can be distinguished that were not apparent from the bivariate analysis. It must be emphasized that for clarity this analysis has been based on only three morphological quantities. A more detailed study could include a wide range of morphological and skeletal measures, but at the cost of both greater complexity and the loss of clear functional interpretation. However, these unmeasured quantities hide important variation, and must overlay, and distort, some of the sometimes surprising convergence evident in Figures 12 to 14.

LOAding FIGURE 14. Scatter plot of principal components of wing morphology for flying birds (excluding hummingbirds). Components are normalized to zero mean and unit standard deviation so distribution appears circular; ticks on axes on this and comparable figures represent 1 SO. See text for details of computation and interpretation. (A) First (size) and second (loading) components. (B) Second (loading) and third (aspect) components. Approximate centroids of major groups of birds for (C) components 1 and 2 and (0) components 1 and 3; to conserve space, most passeriform groups have not been identified.

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