Darwin on Humus and the Earthworm: The Formation of by Charles Darwin

By Charles Darwin

The Formation of Vegetable mold in the course of the motion of Worms with Observations on their conduct. With an creation by means of sir Albert Howard . octavo pp. 154 Rilegato tela, sovracoperta (cloth, dirt jacket) Ottimo (Fine)

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Kuhn is rightly cautious about the philosophical and methodological interpretation of paradigms. This is because a belief in the progress of science (even Kuhn's insipid version) is difficult to sustain if past proponents of different paradigms were doing it wrong (at least according to the current paradigm). Argyle (1978) astutely notes that if many of the proponents of the "new paradigm" (or "new paradigms") in social psychological science are correct in their methodological prescriptions, then most of the work done according to the "old paradigm" of scientific psychology is worthless.

But the only ground for the development of such rules is the present determinate meaning of the theoretical constructs, which is specified by corre- spondence rules relating such constructs to previously established empirical laws. On this account then, the only guide to the discovery and prediction of novel empirical correlations is our knowledge of already established empirical correlations. But if this is the case, then the logical apparatus of theoretical constructs and correspondence rules does no useful work.

According to Popper, this reduces the scientific status of a theory. A falsified theory ought to be rejected and replaced by a superior theory that survives critical tests of its risky predictions. Popper: Falsification 31 THE QUINE-DuHEM THESIS One of the apparent virtues of Popper's account is that it suggests the possibility of decisive refutations of theories. It also suggests the possibility of an "experimentum crucis" (crucial experiment) to determine between two or more competing theories (what Francis Bacon [1620] called an "Instance of the Fingerpost").

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