By Mark Nettle, Diana Hopkins
This ebook deals a learner-centred method of grammar learn for intermediate point scholars. constructing Grammar in Context offers transparent motives and vigorous perform concentrating on key grammar parts. utilizing spoken and written examples drawn from the Cambridge overseas Corpus, constructing Grammar in Context can help inexperienced persons consolidate and deepen their realizing of ways English relatively works. This version, with solutions, is perfect for self-study.
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Additional resources for Developing Grammar in Context Intermediate with Answers : Grammar Reference and Practice
3 Plosive E /t/ (complete closure). Note that a minus sign (–) indicates voiceless (see p. 27). b) The closure is released relatively slowly. e. a narrowing which gives rise to homorganic friction (namely, friction at the same point of articulation as the stop closure). The sounds made in this way are termed affricates. 2 illustrate the stages in E /tS/. In English, /tS/, as in church, and /dZ/, as in judge, are the only affricate articulations which function as phonemes. 1 Affricate E /tS/, showing closure.
This effect is termed pre-glottalisation (or glottal reinforcement). 4). It is formed before or during the articulation of the stop (see pp. 152-53). Glottal reinforcement is very important in RP, and in many cases it is the most significant indicator of a fortis stop. tS taU@] FORTIS / LENIS CONTRAST IN DUTCH AND ENGLISH 5 Aspiration Initially in a stressed syllable, the English fortis plosives /p, t, k/ are strongly aspirated. This means that there is a brief period of voicelessness (sounding like a short [h]) following the plosive.
E /j/ and /w/ are like very short vowels, similar to brief versions of E /i:/ and E /u:/ respectively. Similarly, D /j/ is like a rapidly articulated D /i/. 2 EXERCISE 8 Say a D /i/ followed directly by D /a:/ in this way: [ia:]. If you say [i] quickly, you will end up with Dutch ja. Now try the same with /u/. If you say a rapid D /u/ followed by /Et/, you should end up with a sound close to E [w], and a word sounding like English wet. E /r/ is usually approximant with the tip of the tongue approaching the rear of the alveolar ridge.