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Extra resources for Disposal of radioactive wastes, Volume 15
6 Ci) of I3'I. 7 m3/d) are demineralized, filtered and decanted. 05 m3/d) are stored in the dry state in tanks. This generates an annual amount of 30m3 of wastes which are incinerated and 5 m3 of wastes which are not. The Tarapur power plant in India has an installed capacity of 380 MW(e). Gaseous wastes are discharged from a 11I-m stack at an average rate of 56 m3/s. The permissible annual limit is 670 PBq (18 x lo6 Ci) of rare gases and 3 TBq (82 Ci) of halogens and aerosols, the actual amount of rare gas effluent discharged being 14 % of the permissible level and that of halogens and aerosols 8 %.
In their physical properties, radioactive wastes are either solid, liquid, gaseous or concentrates. Gaseous wastes make up 90 % of the total activity of radionuclides discharged into the environment from nuclear power plants. The radioactivity present in these wastes occurs in form of gases, vapours and solid and liquid aerosols. The term gaseous wastes is therefore not very accurate. Liquid wastes contain not only dissolved salts but also varying amounts of solid and colloidal substances. The most important properties of solid wastes are those which determine their further processing, viz.
During spent fuel reprocessing the groups of radioactive materials are involved in different technological processes and concentrate in different forms. Depending on the nature of the thus generated wastes, these fractions should be concentrated, isolated or mixed. , solid wastes, liquid wastes, gaseous wastes. Solid wastes from reprocessing plants include: a) insoluble remnants of fuel elements, b) solid materials used in the technology, c) structural parts of the equipment. Depending on the type of nuclear fuel and technology, solid wastes from the first stage of the production process may include parts of fuel element cans manufactured from various metal1 alloys or sintered materials and structural parts of elements that have been mechanically separated.