Elements of infinitesimal calculus by Clark J.G.

By Clark J.G.

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Bioi. Chem. 269:19659-62. , Bahiniski, A. et al. (1995) ClOning, functional expression, and characterization of a PKA-activated gastric CI- channel. Am. J. Physioi. 268:C191-C200. , Matsumoto, P. C (1991) Cyclic GMP-activated channel activity in renal epithelial cells (A6). Biochim. Biophys. 1070:152-6. Miller, RJ. (1992) Voltage-sensitive calcium channels. J. BioI. Chem. 267:1403-6. Noel, J. and Pouyssegur, J. (1995) Hormonal regulation, pharmacology, and membrane sorting of vertebrate Na+ /H+ exchanger isoforms.

The pore-forming subunit (a) includes homologous repeats containing six membrane spanning regions. The voltage-sensing domain is thought to lie within the 54 segment of each repeat. The diversity of calcium channel transcripts is a result of the expression of multiple genes and alternative splicing. For example, at least four genes are thought to encode al subunits. Cloning studies identified a family of transcripts that encoded four putative al Ca2+ channel subunits, all of which were expressed in the kidney (Yu, 1994).

As an example, net transepithelial transport of a cation must be balanced by net transport of anion(s) in the same direction and/ or net transport of other cation(s) in the opposite direction. These cation and anion fluxes can occur through different transport molecules or different transport pathways. As an example, Na+ absorption by tight epithelia occurs through a transcellular pathway and Cl- follows passively (down the electrical gradient) through the paracellular pathway (Chapter 1). Alternatively Cl- could follow through a transcellular route in which both the apical and basolateral membranes possess chloride conductances.

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