By Simon A. Lewis (auth.), Nancy K. Wills PhD, Luis Reuss MD, Simon A. Lewis PhD (eds.)
Building from common rules, the authors basically clarify the elemental position of epithelia in plasma electrolyte and water stability. Emphasis is put on experimental ways and method. A complete word list of phrases is included.
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Extra resources for Epithelial Transport: A guide to methods and experimental analysis
Bioi. Chem. 269:19659-62. , Bahiniski, A. et al. (1995) ClOning, functional expression, and characterization of a PKA-activated gastric CI- channel. Am. J. Physioi. 268:C191-C200. , Matsumoto, P. C (1991) Cyclic GMP-activated channel activity in renal epithelial cells (A6). Biochim. Biophys. 1070:152-6. Miller, RJ. (1992) Voltage-sensitive calcium channels. J. BioI. Chem. 267:1403-6. Noel, J. and Pouyssegur, J. (1995) Hormonal regulation, pharmacology, and membrane sorting of vertebrate Na+ /H+ exchanger isoforms.
The pore-forming subunit (a) includes homologous repeats containing six membrane spanning regions. The voltage-sensing domain is thought to lie within the 54 segment of each repeat. The diversity of calcium channel transcripts is a result of the expression of multiple genes and alternative splicing. For example, at least four genes are thought to encode al subunits. Cloning studies identified a family of transcripts that encoded four putative al Ca2+ channel subunits, all of which were expressed in the kidney (Yu, 1994).
As an example, net transepithelial transport of a cation must be balanced by net transport of anion(s) in the same direction and/ or net transport of other cation(s) in the opposite direction. These cation and anion fluxes can occur through different transport molecules or different transport pathways. As an example, Na+ absorption by tight epithelia occurs through a transcellular pathway and Cl- follows passively (down the electrical gradient) through the paracellular pathway (Chapter 1). Alternatively Cl- could follow through a transcellular route in which both the apical and basolateral membranes possess chloride conductances.