Handbook of Microwave Technology. Volume 2, Applications by T. Koryu Ishii

By T. Koryu Ishii

Guide of Microwave know-how

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Internal feedback is possible in the form of electrons that have become turned around and propagate toward the gun. This is more likely to occur in tubes with depressed collectors, permanent magnets, or ultra-high-efficiency tubes. Note that these possible gain anomalies are especially significant to applications that have critical intermodulation requirements. Multipactor is a secondary electron discharge that is possible in the presence of strong RF and magnetic fields. It can occur on output drift tube tips, output windows, or the cavity ceramics of external cavity klystrons.

Figure 14. Major subassemblies of a K~-band klystron. 25 I. Klystrons Typically, there will be several levels of assembly before the tube is evacuated in a bake-out furnace. Figure 14 shows a Ka-band tube at the subassembly stage. Several steps of tube dress and RF processing will follow before construction is complete. References [51] and [52] describe the materials and technology of tube construction in great detail. 5. Noise and Stability Characteristics Noise Klystrons are amplifiers that can be represented by the gain and noise blocks that are normally used in system design.

References [51] and [52] describe the materials and technology of tube construction in great detail. 5. Noise and Stability Characteristics Noise Klystrons are amplifiers that can be represented by the gain and noise blocks that are normally used in system design. Typical noise figures for klystrons range from 30 to 40 dB. The total noise power output (or output per unit frequency) is readily calculable given the noise figure, gain, and bandwidth of the klystron. All calculations of this type start with the assumption of thermal noise at the input of the amplifier.

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