High Brightness Light Emitting Diodes by Gerald B. Stringfellow, M. George Craford, Robert K.

By Gerald B. Stringfellow, M. George Craford, Robert K. Willardson, Eicke R. Weber

This publication is a smart reference for the themes of high-brightness LEDs. even supposing the part for nitride established LEDs is somewhat dated (1997), the complete publication is a smart overview of the new heritage of the advance of high-brightness LEDs. It additionally has an excellent bankruptcy on purposes for the LED and its destiny markets. i like to recommend it for an individual who needs an all encompasing resource for contemporary LED development.

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For the volatile dopants, the distribution coefficient is typically not dependent on the growth rate. For nonvolatile impurities such as Si, neither the growth temperature nor the V-111 ratio have any effect on incorporation. However, as the growth 1 MATERIALS ISSUESIN HIGH-BRIGHTNESS LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES 21 rate increases, the dopant becomes more dilute; that is, the dopant concentration decreases. The previous discussion assumes rapid pyrolysis of the dopant precursor. For stable dopant molecules, dopant incorporation can be limited by the pyrolysis rate of the dopant precursor.

1995). This low growth rate may also be inconvenient for LED structures several microns thick that require tens of hours for growth. , 1989, 1990). 5. LATTICEMISMATCH Frequently, the lattice constant of a desired alloy differs from that of an underlying layer or the substrate. In this case, if the atoms matched perfectly at the interface, they could not be at their equilibrium spacings. Assuming 30 G. B. STRINGFELLOW that the substrate is very thick and that the epilayer is thin, the strain energy resulting from the lattice parameter mismatch increases linearly with the thickness of the lattice-mismatched epilayer.

This is a phenomenon first discovered in metal systems. The large and small atoms are segregated into alternating atomic planes of a particular crystallographic orientation. The microscopic strain energy is reduced most in III-V alloys by formation of either the CuAu-I or the chalcopyrite structure where the crystallographic plane on which ordering is observed is (100) or (210}, respectively (Stringfellow, 1989b; Zunger and Mahajan, 1993; Zunger, 1994). This is manifest as a doubling of the periodicity in a particular direction in the electron diffraction patterns.

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