By Euan Graham
This is the 1st significant English-language learn to discover the vast and longstanding connections among Japan’s nationwide defense and the security of its sea lanes. Tracing matters from pre-and post-1945 eras, the e-book explores how Japan’s issues with sea lane security have built throughout such varied fields as army technique, international relations, alternate coverage, strength safety, and legislations enforcement.
Drawing upon case examine fabric and first study together with interviews with officers and defense analysts, the booklet offers a chronological research of Japan’s sea lane safety. whereas Japan’s safeguard rules have lately gone through particularly fast swap, a historic remedy of sea lane safeguard concerns finds long term continuity in defense policymakers’ perceptions and responses relating to Japan's defence and overseas policy.
Revealing a overlooked yet vital point of Japan’s army and monetary safety, the e-book investigates why officers and analysts proceed to painting the defence of Japan’s sea lanes as ‘a topic of existence and death’.
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Extra resources for Japan's Sea Lane Security: A Matter of Life and Death?
4 Source: Japan Shipowners’ Association. Seaborne trade worldwide totalled just over 5 billion tons in 1998, of which crude oil constituted 31 per cent, coal 9 per cent and iron ore 8 per cent. 2). 22 Measured in ton-miles, Japan’s trade accounts for slightly higher values for most commodities, except for petroleum products. There are two important trends in Japan’s imports over the last 40 years. First, the percentage value of raw materials declined from almost half in 1960 to under 10 per cent by 1998.
Source: Adapted from BP Amoco Statistical Review of World Energy: ‘Oil Consumption 1989–1999’, ‘Trade Movements 1989–1999’. Online. htm (accessed 6 May 2002). Notes Crude oil and oil products; oil products typically make up between 10 and 20 per cent of the total. In 1999, Japan imported 215 million tons of crude and 49 million tons of oil products (Agency of Natural Resources and Energy figures cited in Foreign Press Center, Japan, Facts and Figures of Japan, 1997 edition; ‘Imports of Oil 1985–1994’, p.
Japan is naturally lacking across a range of non-ferrous ores and metals required in heavy industry, such as iron ore, bauxite, manganese, nickel and titanium. 11 Worldwide, Japan is the fourth-largest consumer of energy and as an importer of energy is second only to the United States. 9% 100% Cobalt Zinc Titanium Cotton Wheat Timber Fish/shellfish 100% 92% 100% 100% 93% 80% 44% Source: Foreign Press Center, Japan, Facts and Figures of Japan, 1997 edition, Tokyo: Foreign Press Center, Japan, 1997, pp.