By Mark Foley, Diane Hall
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Extra resources for Longman Advanced Learners' Grammar
3 Plosive E /t/ (complete closure). Note that a minus sign (–) indicates voiceless (see p. 27). b) The closure is released relatively slowly. e. a narrowing which gives rise to homorganic friction (namely, friction at the same point of articulation as the stop closure). The sounds made in this way are termed affricates. 2 illustrate the stages in E /tS/. In English, /tS/, as in church, and /dZ/, as in judge, are the only affricate articulations which function as phonemes. 1 Affricate E /tS/, showing closure.
This effect is termed pre-glottalisation (or glottal reinforcement). 4). It is formed before or during the articulation of the stop (see pp. 152-53). Glottal reinforcement is very important in RP, and in many cases it is the most significant indicator of a fortis stop. tS taU@] FORTIS / LENIS CONTRAST IN DUTCH AND ENGLISH 5 Aspiration Initially in a stressed syllable, the English fortis plosives /p, t, k/ are strongly aspirated. This means that there is a brief period of voicelessness (sounding like a short [h]) following the plosive.
E /j/ and /w/ are like very short vowels, similar to brief versions of E /i:/ and E /u:/ respectively. Similarly, D /j/ is like a rapidly articulated D /i/. 2 EXERCISE 8 Say a D /i/ followed directly by D /a:/ in this way: [ia:]. If you say [i] quickly, you will end up with Dutch ja. Now try the same with /u/. If you say a rapid D /u/ followed by /Et/, you should end up with a sound close to E [w], and a word sounding like English wet. E /r/ is usually approximant with the tip of the tongue approaching the rear of the alveolar ridge.