By Tony Addison, Tilman Bruck
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Additional resources for Making Peace Work: The Challenges of Social and Economic Reconstruction (Studies in Development Economics and Policy)
2005; Besley and Cord 2006). Uganda and Mozambique are both important cases. Uganda, which achieved strong growth over 1992–2001 following the initial war-to-peace transition (when the economy’s sharp decline was finally halted), is illustrative. One study on growth and poverty reports that 56 per cent of Ugandans were living in poverty in 1992, and 38 per cent in 2003 (Ssewanyana and Bategeka 2006). 8 million in 2003). The fall in poverty occurred across all regions, with the exception of the conflict-affected north (which illustrates the continuing importance of conflict reduction to Tony Addison and Tilman Brück 29 the acceleration of poverty reduction in Uganda).
The death and mutilation inflicted upon people in war is matched – and, in many cases, exceeded by – the deaths caused by the accompanying hunger and disease (Justino 2006). One estimate is that adult and infant mortality increases by 13 per cent during conflict and remains 11 per cent higher for at least five years (Hoeffler and Reynal-Querol 2003). International sanctions to bring belligerents to the peace table might have the unintended effect of worsening the lot of the poor; there is some evidence of sanctions worsening nutritional status in Burundi, for instance (Bundervoet and Verwimp 2005; Ndikumana 2005).
Ultimately, it is to be hoped that China can bring its aid within the OECD-DAC framework (Manning 2006) and work with other permanent members of the Security Council to create an effective international financing framework to underpin P-P-P. In summary, much still remains to be done in aid policy and it cannot be accomplished in isolation from the need to recast the system of global governance (Addison and Murshed 2003a; Kennedy 2006). While we have expressed our criticisms of aid, we do not follow the current (and highly fashionable) view that sees aid as mostly ineffective (as epitomized by Easterly 2006).