By Michael Riley
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Additional info for Managing People, Second Edition (Professional Hospitality Guides)
However, the detective in you will have noticed that as alibis, these broad arguments don’t add up. No possibility of reconstructing the work to make it interesting and no dissent. True, many people must be abstracted out and feel like robots but the very lack of dissent suggests most people have endlessly subtle adaption systems which can turn moronic work into something, at least worth possessing, if not even cherishing. Here then is the dilemma of job satisfaction - the range of elements from which satisfaction can be gained extends beyond the normal list of job itself, pay, boss, work group, organization, working conditions, achievement, advancement, etc.
The integration argument is that when workers go home and socialize with workers from other industries 'talking shop' is less likely and grumbles are disarmed by comparisons. In these circumstances, what happens at work stays at work. The relevance to hotel and catering is fairly obvious. Employees in the hotel and catering industry are often physically isolated, work unsocial hours when the rest of the population is at leisure and live in provided accommodation. In these circumstances it would be expected that work values would be fairly dominant values even out of hours, but the message for management is that this reinforcement process can work on both positive and negative raw material.
It is not, alas, as simple as this. When we look at the process it is easy to see how needs theories and self theory work together through the medium of perception. Ask any group of people to do a job for a reward and they all react in a different way. Not only does motivation vary between individuals but they respond differently to the same stimulus. This offers us a clue that the relationship between the content and process may explain the actual differences between people that we see. Expectancy theory Expectancy theory attempts to explain how a stimulus is turned into motivation or, put more simply, how a reward produces an enhanced performance.