Materials in Sports Equipment (2003) by Mike Jenkins

By Mike Jenkins

Advancements in fabrics know-how have made an important effect on carrying functionality in recent times. complex fabrics and novel processing equipment have enabled the improvement of recent forms of apparatus with more advantageous homes, in addition to bettering the final layout of wearing items. The interdependence among fabric expertise and layout, and its effect on the various preferred activities, is reviewed during this publication. fabrics in activities gear provides the newest examine, from a extraordinary panel of overseas individuals, into the chemical constitution and composition, microstructure and fabric processing of a few of the fabrics utilized in quite a lot of activities. the connection among functionality and layout is tested intimately for every activity coated. half 1 concentrates at the normal use of fabrics in activities. the following, the reader is given a wide perception into the final impression of fabrics in activities, and the importance of fabric processing and layout. half 2 specializes in displaying how person activities have benefited from fresh advancements in fabric expertise. It additionally analyses the best way advancements in our knowing of biomechanics and the engineering facets of activities apparatus functionality have motivated fabrics and layout. activities whose gear is taken into account intimately comprise: golfing, tennis, biking, mountain climbing, snowboarding, cricket and paralympic activities. the general target of the e-book is to make the reader conscious of the interplay among the kind of fabric, its choice, processing and floor therapy, and convey how this procedure underpins the functionality of the ultimate wearing product. it's crucial interpreting for all fabrics scientists and researchers operating during this swiftly constructing box.

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The horizontal bending stiffness should be sufficient to transfer load to the muscles at the side of the tibia, but not too great to save size/weight. There is no need for the shell stiffness to exceed 4¥ that of the leg muscles loaded at the sides. Its vertical bending stiffness is unlikely to approach the mean value of 180 Nm2 of cadaver tibia in the antero-posterior direction (Heiner and Brown, 2001), so it is difficult to spread load above and below the impact site. The cushioning of the front of the tibia is important.

If the impact is on one of the ventilation holes, the effective crack length is half of ventilation hole length plus the surface (bead boundary) crack length. The wedging force needed to propagate this crack is of the order of the 50 N. As the crushing force in a cycle helmet impact is many kN, foam fractures are possible. 5 (Mills and Kang, 1994). Consequently, cracks can propagate and split the helmet shell into several pieces. 5 mm thick, the edges of which are taped to the foam. It provides the tensile strength on the outer surface of the helmet and prevents the foam liner from fracturing in a crash.

7 The need for a helmet microshell In c. 1990, several designs of cycle helmets had cloth covers over the EPS mouldings. McIntosh & Dowdell (1992) showed that some of these helmets break up into pieces in crashes. In a crash, any localised crushing of EPS may initiate cracks at the sides of the indented area. If the impact is on one of the ventilation holes, the effective crack length is half of ventilation hole length plus the surface (bead boundary) crack length. The wedging force needed to propagate this crack is of the order of the 50 N.

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