Ontology and the Logistic Analysis of Language: An Enquiry by Guido Küng

By Guido Küng

It is the purpose of the current learn to introduce the reader to the methods of contemplating these modern philosophers who practice the instruments of symbolic good judgment to classical philosophical difficulties. in contrast to the "conti­ nental" reader for whom this paintings used to be initially written, the English­ conversing reader should be extra acquainted with lots of the philosophers dis­ stubborn during this publication, and he'll usually no longer be tempted to brush aside them indiscriminately as "positivists" and "nominalists". however the English model of this learn can assist to redress the stability in one other admire. In view of the current emphasis on usual language and the vast­ unfold tendency to go away the mathematical logicians on my own with their technicalities, it kind of feels now not with no advantage to restore the curiosity in formal ontology and the development of formal platforms. a more in-depth examine the old account for you to receive the following, may well persuade the reader that there are a number of issues within the historic improve­ ment whose outcomes haven't but been totally assessed: I point out, e. g. , the shift from the normal three-level semantics of experience and deno­ tation to the modern two-level semantics of illustration; the relation of extensional constitution and intensional content material within the extensional platforms of Wittgenstein and Carnap; the complicated alterations in labelling the various types of analytic and apriori real sentences; and so on. one of the philosophically attention-grabbing instruments of symbolic good judgment Lesniewski's calculus of names merits targeted attention.

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The reason why Wittgenstein did not distinguish between logical and ontological analysis appears to be that he believed the logical and the ontological form to be identical (cf. 54). 20 CARNAP 1934, §§ 78, 79. 16 17 36 FROM THEORY OF KNOWLEDGE TO ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE psychology, stressing that psychology was a branch of the natural sciences no closer to philosophy than any of the others, and thus deprived epistemology of its pre-eminent status. 21 Furthermore, he said that most of what had hitherto been written about philosophical matters was neither true nor false, but nonsensical.

145 f. and INGARDEN 1931 (1960). p. 407. U Cf. MANNOURY 1948. VUZSJE 1953. 20 PART ONE THE LOGISTIC ANALYSIS OF LANGUAGE AND THE RELATION OF REPRESENTATION 1. A PHILOSOPHICAL REVOLUTION This chapter will begin with a brief sketch of the historical origin of the analytic trend in contemporary philosophy. We shall then indicate the novel and peculiar features of Russell's method, as revealed in his analysis of relational facts and of relational propositions, and show how he was led to mathematical logic.

E', the sign for the membership function. 17 MOORE 1903a, pp. 5-17. 18 Cf. above, p. 23. 19 A russellian predicate expression can, however, stand in the subject position of a higher-level sentence, for a property may itself have properties of a higher level. 28 , A PHILOSOPHICAL REVOLUTION spondence between logical and ontological structure is indicative of the close connexion between logic and ontology, and shows how the logical analysis of language and the ontological analysis of reality are related to each other.

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