Operational Radiation Safety Program for Astronauts in by National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

By National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements

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Additional info for Operational Radiation Safety Program for Astronauts in Low-Earth Orbit: A Basic Framework (Ncrp Report)

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4. Radiation Environment in Low-Earth Orbit The radiation environment external to a spacecraft in LEO consists of electrons, positrons, neutrons, protons and heavier nuclei (up to Z ‫ ס‬92). Sources include: GCR from deep space; SPEs produced by coronal mass ejections or by acceleration in solar flare events; particles trapped in Earth’s magnetic field; and scattering from Earth’s atmosphere (albedo neutrons, electrons and protons). Energies range from a few electron volts for trapped electrons and albedo neutrons to in excess of 1014 MeV for GCR ions.

These detectors respond to high-LET particles, including secondary charged particles from neutron interactions, but are insensitive to photons, electrons and other charged particles with LET (in water) values less than approximately 10 keV ␮m‫מ‬1, depending upon PNTD material. Processing of PNTD can yield LET distributions for the radiation field, as well as particle type and energy. PNTDs have a strong dependence of response on angle of incidence. Details of the properties and performance of PNTDs can be found in Appendix D.

Details of TLD properties and performance can be found in Appendix C. PNTDs have been a standard component in crew and area dosimetry packages. These detectors respond to high-LET particles, including secondary charged particles from neutron interactions, but are insensitive to photons, electrons and other charged particles with LET (in water) values less than approximately 10 keV ␮m‫מ‬1, depending upon PNTD material. Processing of PNTD can yield LET distributions for the radiation field, as well as particle type and energy.

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