By R. Rhea

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**Sample text**

5! 02 dB. A varactor used for C8 would be driven 5v 4v Ql 3V 5 2v -- Res onat or Voltage (rms> t s21 0 dB -- - 1v 6000 4000 2000 0 - xs figure 2-6 Insertion loss, loaded Q and resonator voltage as a function of the coupling reactance in top-C coupled parallel resonators. 44 Oscillator Design and Computer Simulation into heavy forward conduction and perhaps even reverse breakdown by the RF voltage. Since this significantly degrades resonator unloaded Q and increases loss, limiting in the cascade occurs in the resonator instead of the amplifier, an intolerable situation leading to erratic tuning and poor stability The varactor may be decoupled from the resonator by placing a very small capacitor in series with the varactor, therefore dropping most of the voltage across the series capacitor.

First, placing a shunt capacitor at the input of the transistor rotates the 4 GHz end of the SII trace toward the center of the Smith chart, improving the input match at 4 GHz and increasing the gain. By trying different values for the shunt capacitor, it was discovered that a value of 1 pF results in the maximum increase in gain. The results are shown in Figure 1-6. 8 dB. The gain at 2 GHz was unaffected. A shorted transmission line stub followed by a series transmission line are used to match the output.

A very important practical aspect of this analysis method is that the open-loop Bode response is readily measured with a network analyzer, allowing verification of the oscillator design prior to closing the loop. 63518 Figure 2-2 Open-loop transmission gain and phase (left) and input and output match (right) of a resonator-amplifier cascade. 1 An Example Figure 2-3 shows the schematic of the cascade used to compute the open-loop response given in Figure 2-2. A pi-network resonator is cascaded with a common-emitter 2N5179 bipolar NPN transistor amplifier.