Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short by Edward Craig

By Edward Craig

How ought we to stay? What fairly exists? How can we comprehend? This ebook introduces very important subject matters in ethics, wisdom, and the self, through readings from Plato, Aristotle, Descartes, Hegel, Darwin, and Buddhist writers. It emphasizes in the course of the element of learning philosophy, explains how various parts of philosophy are comparable, and explores the contexts during which philosophy was once and is studied.

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Extra resources for Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction (Very Short Introductions)

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There are, in fact, two rather different ways in which we might proceed, and it will be instructive before continuing briefly to distinguish these two approaches. I begin by appealing to a context in which this distinction is already familiar. Within the context of ethical reasoning there has for many years been recognized a distinction between two main frameworks for justifying the imposition of moral rules. We might say, within a broadly teleological framework, that an agent A was, in a situation l:, right to perform an action 0.

If she remains silent this commitment cannot be honored - for she will not know, since she has given him no opportunity to show this, whether Alfhas good reasons for rejecting as infirm her reasons for denying that p. Participation therefore better expresses her commitment than would any attempt to remain silent in the face of AIrs affirmation of p. But participation is required by the second rule of respect. Behavior in conformity with this rule therefore better expresses than behavior not in conformity with it Beth's commitment as a rational being, and the imposition of this rule is therefore justified, deontologically.

It is my intention here to exhibit a broadly 'deontological' alternative to the commonly accepted teleological framework for justifying such rules for the resolution of disputed issues as I have specified. I hope to show, in other words, that liberal conversationalists have non-teleological reason to be guided by these rules. I hope to show, more specifically, that conformity with these rules is better expressive than non-conformity would be ofthe conversationalists' commitments as rational agents facing encountered disagreement, and that it is therefore rational deontologically, expressively, that they conform to these rules - not because of any anticipated benefits (though these may result), but, instead, because of the intrinsic qualities, relative to their commitments, of conversation in conformity with these rules.

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