By A. Keller (auth.), Norman March, Mario Tosi (eds.)
This e-book bargains with 3 comparable components having either basic and technological curiosity. within the first half, the target is to supply a bird's eye view on constitution in polymeric solids. this can be then complemented by way of a bankruptcy, without delay technological in its emphasis, facing the impression of processing on polymeric fabrics. regardless of the technological curiosity, this results in many of the present basic thought. half II, concerned about liquid crystals, begins with a dialogue of the physics of a number of the kinds of fabric, and concludes with a remedy of optical functions. back, facets of the idea are under pressure even though this half is largely phenomenological in personality. partly III, an account is given first of using chemical-bonding arguments in realizing the digital constitution of low-dimensional solids, via a finished remedy of the impression of dimen sionality on part transitions. a quick precis of dielectric screening in low-dimensional solids follows. Space-charge layers are then taken care of, together with semiconductor inversion layers. results of restricted dimensionality on superconductivity also are emphasised. half IV concludes the amount with really good subject matters: digital constitution of biopolymers, and topological defects and disordered platforms. The Editors desire to recognize that this e-book had its origins within the fabric offered at a path geared up via the foreign Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste.
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Extra resources for Polymers, Liquid Crystals, and Low-Dimensional Solids
Here each molecule, although aperiodic, is strictly identical. 3. Chain Folding: An Aside The folding of chains features frequently in the subject of crystallinity of chain molecules. It is important to realize (it is in fact self-evident, although nowhere explicitly stated) that it has a different meaning in the fields of periodic and aperiodic molecules. In the case of periodic molecules folding is one way in which the one-dimensional periodicity of the chains achieves a periodicity in a second dimension, thus leading to a sheet.
Head-to- Tail and Head-to-Head Isomerism. Let us consider the monomer R I CH2=CH (1) (2) where (1) and (2) again label the C atoms. In the head-to-tail polymer carbon (1) links up with carbon (2) in the course of polymerization, leading to a chain such as R R I R I I ----CH 2-CH-CH 2-CH 2-CH 2-CH--- - In the head-to-head polymer the carbons link as (1) to (1) and (2) to (2), leading to a chain such as R I R I R I R I ----CH 2-CH-CH-CH2-CH2-CH-CH--- - The head-to-tail sequence is the one which occurs far the most frequently and is thus considered "normal" for polyolefins.
These molecules assume a complex convoluted configuration so as to satisfy the requirements of delicate interactions between different monomeric units along the same chain. ) The overall configuration will therefore be a globular coil of specific internal structure, all exactly the same for each molecule. 2). It is noteworthy that this lattice bears no relation to the chain direction. , the lattice, which in fact is usually trivial. 2. Schematic representation of a lattice from globular (protein) molecules.