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A consultant to parts and units meant to be used at microwave frequencies (such because the epidermis and tunnel results) and the way those effect units and parts at such frequencies. Microwave power new release, amplification, detection, and modulation are one of the topics coated. a number of layout eq

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**Example text**

The values of these resistances vary greatly by the doping concentration and the magnitude and direction of bias voltages. 5 X 10 5 Ω-cm [11]. In the electrode configuration shown in Fig. 5 X 105 Ω-/χιη)(4 jum)/(6 /xm)(l /xm) = 167 kΩ. A similar order of magnitude of resistance can be expected between the emitter and the collector as in intrinsic silicon. A resistance as much as twice that of REB can be expected between the base and the collector. These resistance values are so high in comparison with the resistance of the associated component (such as the biasing resistors) that the effect of the intrinsic resistance can be omitted.

8 is built for high microwave frequencies utilizing microstripline technology. A schematic diagram of the microstripline version of Fig. 8 is shown in Fig. 9. In this figure, both the gate and drain resonators are replaced by half-wavelength resonators. The rf choke coils are replaced by quarter-wavelength lines, and the feedthrough capacitors are replaced by capacitor pads. The coupling capacitors are replaced by chip capacitors. The stripline resonator is tapped at a proper location to match the impedance of the tapping line to the impedance of the stripline resonator at the tapping point [12,13,18,19].

3 Concept of Negative Resistance In Eq. 1, the energy level of a tunneling electron, E, is Ec < E < £ v , as seen from Fig. 1. When the diode is forward biased V volts, raising EF with respect to EF decreases the value 58 Microwave Tunnel Diodes of (Ey — Ec). At a certain bias voltage V = Vy, Ec becomes equal to Ew, and the integral Eq. 1, or the tunnel current, becomes zero. Therefore (Ey - Ec) is determined by the bias voltage under the biased condition, and the diode current Id is also determined by the bias voltage.