By Govind P. Agrawal

Given that its invention in 1962, the semiconductor laser has come some distance. Advances in fabric purity and epitaxial development thoughts have ended in various semiconductor lasers protecting a large wavelength diversity of zero. three- a hundred ~m. the improvement in the course of the Nineteen Seventies of GaAs semiconductor lasers, emitting within the near-infrared zone of zero. 8-0. nine ~m, ended in their use for the 1st new release of optical fiber verbal exchange platforms. although, to make the most oflow losses in silica fibers taking place round 1. three and 1. fifty five ~m, the emphasis quickly shifted towards long-wavelength semiconductor lasers. the cloth process of selection during this wavelength diversity has been the quaternary alloy InGaAsP. over the last 5 years or so, the serious improvement attempt dedicated to InGaAsP lasers has led to a expertise mature adequate that lightwave transmission structures utilizing InGaAsP lasers are at the moment being deployed in the course of the global. This e-book is meant to supply a entire account of long-wave size semiconductor lasers. specific awareness is paid to InGaAsP lasers, even supposing we additionally think of semiconductor lasers working at longer wave lengths. the target is to supply an up to date knowing of semicon ductor lasers whereas incorporating fresh examine effects that aren't but to be had within the booklet shape. even supposing InGaAsP lasers are usually used to illustrate, the elemental suggestions mentioned during this textual content practice to all semiconductor lasers, regardless of their wavelengths.

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G. Trofim. Sov. Phys. Semicond. 4,1573 (1971). [Translated from Fiz. Tekh. 4, 1826 (1970)]. Ettenberg, M. Appl. Phys. Lett. 27, 652 (1975). Dyment, J. C. Appl. Phys. Lett. 10, 84 (1967). Ripper,1. , J. C. Dyment, L. A. D'Asaro, and T. L. Paoli. Appl. Phys. Lett. 18, 155 (1971). Cook, D. , and F. R. Nash. J. Appl. Phys. 46, 1660 (1975). , and J. K. Butler. Semiconductor Lasers and Heterojunction LEDs. New York: Academic Press, 1977. Casey, H. , and M. B. Panish. Heterostructure Lasers, Parts A and B.

To account for the absorption, the dielectric constant E j is complex in each layer. Further, as shown by Eq. 20), within the active layer it also varies with external pumping. To obtain an exact solution of Eq. 1) is a difficult task. It is essential to make certain simplifying assumptions whose nature and validity vary from device to device. For a strongly index guided laser such as the buried heterostructure laser shown schematically in Fig. 3, the effect of gain or loss on the passive-cavity modes can often be ignored.

77. Hasegawa, A. Solitons in Optical Fibers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag, 1989. 78. Agrawal, G. , Chap. 2, in Contemporary Nonlinear Optics, ed. by G. P. Agrawal and R. W. Boyd. Boston: Academic Press, 1992. 79. Mollenauer, L. , J. P. Gordon, and S. G. Evangelides. Laser Focus World 17 (11), 159 (1991). 80. Nakazawa, M. Proc. Europ. Conf. Opt. , Paris, Sept. 1991, pp. 150-64. 8t. Okayasu, M. , Fukuda, T. Takeshita, and S. Uehara. IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett. 1, 689 (1990). 82. , S. Takano, M. Kawaradani, M.