Symmetries in Science IV: Biological and Biophysical Systems by E. Benedetti, B. Di Blasio, A. Lombardi, V. Pavone, C.

By E. Benedetti, B. Di Blasio, A. Lombardi, V. Pavone, C. Pedone (auth.), Bruno Gruber, John H. Yopp (eds.)

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B i polar, mult ipolar Figure 2. ropo l ar mult ipolar Polarity of neurons (after Bullock and Murridge 1965) 31 Newer studies (Black & Baas 1989 suggest intrinsic polarity of neurons might be derived asymmetry of the tubulin molecule. 3. Dendritic patterns Though dendrites were originally defined as processes specialized to be the receptive part of the neuron, it turned out that sometimes they can be presynaptic elements. The dendritic arborization can be classified based on (1) 'randomness' versus 'regularity' in regard to branching of the various dendritic segments resulting in a continuous spectrum ranging from the 'radiate' to the 'tufted' types of arborization, and (2) the degree of deviation of the individual branches from a radiated and rectilinear course.

L I I t ' -, -' I 4 CI' 5 6 A 8 Figure 10. The functional architecture of the primary visual cortex. (A) the original 'ice cube' model illustrating the connections among ocular dominance columns and orientation columns. (B) the modified 'ice cube' model takes into account the existence of the 'non-orientation selective' blobs. 6. Cortical plasticity Making our analysis from the point of view of symmetry, what it is mentioned first is, that asymmetries in the activation of afferents from the two eyes imply corresponding asymmetries in the geometry of ocular dominance columns.

The characteristics and consequences of the structure of Fibonacci plant symmetries on the three hierarchy levels were comprehended and reviewed by introducing a new operation. This global type part-band sliding operation was a useful tool in showing that Fibonacci structure was deeply connected to crystallographic regulations of lattices lor mosaics/ on the cylinder. On the other hand an interdisciplinary model making became possible. This model connected local and global type of models and topological, physical, botanical and crystallographyic structural descriptions of the phenomenon /without mentioning the structural role of golden angle between certain lattice positions/.

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