Syntactic heads and word formation by Marit Julien

By Marit Julien

Marit Julien investigates the relation among morphology and syntax, or extra particularly, the relation among the shape of inflected verbs and the location of these verbs. She surveys 530 languages and exhibits that, except for contract markers, the location of verbal inflectional markers relative to verb stems is appropriate with a syntactic method of morphology.

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B. * (bi)jaba-na As (56) demonstrates, the subject agreement marker is now obligatory in Buryat. The fact that it can co-occur with a pronominal subject indicates that it is no longer a pronominal element in itself; rather, it has been reanalyzed as the realization of the functional category that hosts subject agreement. But then the structural relation between the morphemes in (56a) must be different from the relation between the cognate morphemes in (55b). In (56a), the agreement marker must be located in a head belonging to the extended projection of the verb, in the sense of Grimshaw (1991, 1997), and the operation that gives the surface order as output is either head movement of the verb into its functional domain or phrasal movement of VP to Spec-TP and possibly of TP to a higher head.

This is shown by the contrast between the phrase in (44) and the compound hi (45) and between the phrase in (46) and the phrasal word in (47). (44) English a. a black bird b. a black and beautiful bird (45) English a. a blackbird b. * a black-and-beautiful-bird (46) English a. a jack in the box b. a jack in the little box (47) English a. a jack-in-the-box b. * ajack-in-the-little-box Compounds and phrasal words are thus examples of words that are not minimal free forms. The reason for counting them as words is that they share with words the indivisibility demonstrated above, and they also show the syntactic behavior of noncompound words—that is, of simplex stems.

40) Greenlandic (Fortescue 1984:127) a. palasi(-lu) niuirtur-lu priest-and shopkeeper-and '(both) the priest and the shopkeeper' b. palasi(-luunniit) niuirtur-luunniit priest-or shopkeeper-or 'either the priest or the shopkeeper' Because of the fact that -lu is a dependent element that occurs in the same positions as other dependent elements, we would tend to conclude that it is not a word, but a bound marker. Some observations that can be taken to bear on the present problem are found in another vintage text.

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