By George M. Korres
Technological swap isn't just a determinant of development yet can be a pivotal consider overseas pageant and the modernisation of an financial system. in a single of the main in-depth and precise stories of its sort, George Korres analyzes the macroeconomic and the microeconomic elements influencing the economics of innovation and the industrial kinfolk among know-how, innovation, wisdom and productiveness. specifically the booklet examines either the theoretical framework and the purposes for empirical effects. the second one version contributes up-to-date figures and estimations for technical switch from european member states and contours new matters, together with progress types; productiveness versions; creation functionality versions and non-parametric versions. The e-book captures the entire present modern suggestions within the theoretical fields, in addition to the empirical functions of the versions.
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Additional info for Technical Change and Economic Growth, 2nd Edition
Administrative and other overhead costs (such as interest charges and ofﬁce, post and telecommunications, and insurance costs) should also be included, if necessary, prorated to allow for non-R&D activities within the same statistical unit. All expenditures on indirect services should be included here, whether carried out within the organisation concerned or hired or purchased from outside suppliers. Gross Domestic Expenditure on R&D (GERD) GERD is total intramural expenditure on R&D performed on the national territory.
Similarly, R&D personnel data need to be viewed as part of a model for the training and use of scientiﬁc and technical personnel. R&D covers three activities: • • • basic research, applied research and experimental development. Basic research is “experimental or theoretical work undertaken primarily to acquire new knowledge of the underlying foundation of phenomena and observable facts, without any particular application or use in view”. Basic research analyses properties, structures, and relationships to formulate and test hypotheses, theories or laws.
OECD, UN and US Department of Commerce use the classiﬁcation of high technology industries which is based on the criterion of R&D expenditures. The International Trade Classiﬁcation, the Lower Saxony Institute for Economic Research and the Fraunhofer Institute for Systems and Innovation Research have designed a new list of R&D intensive products. 2 presents the product groups considered to have been fall into high technology categories; this list divides the R&D intensive sector into two parts: the leading edge products and the high level technology products.