By Enrico Ciciotti, Neil Alderman, Alfred Thwaites
This publication represents a range of contributions to the neighborhood technological know-how organization, ecu summer time Institute, held at Arco, Lake of Garda, Italy, from seventeenth to twenty third July 1988 at the subject of 'Theories and guidelines of technological improvement on the neighborhood level'. As such it kinds a complementary quantity to the gathering of invited papers entitled 'The Spatial Context of Technological Development', edited by way of Professors Riccardo Cappellin and Peter Nijk.amp, and released by way of Avebury/Gower. The summer time Institute lined a extensive diversity of topics and contributions from over a hundred researchers. It has as a result now not been our purpose to symbolize or reflect those subject matters at once, yet to supply as huge a global assurance of present learn in neighborhood technological know-how within the box of technological swap as attainable. The papers to be present in this booklet are drawn from the ecu group, japanese Europe, Scandinavia, North the United States and in other places. unavoidably, because the publication used to be to be released in English, many of the editorial paintings has been undertaken on the Centre for city and neighborhood improvement reviews at Newcastle college. In so doing, we have now tried to standardize the English so far as attainable, while making an attempt to not lose the features of the sorts of the person authors.
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Additional resources for Technological Change in a Spatial Context: Theory, Empirical Evidence and Policy
The domestic, Norwegian context presents a quite different picture due to the fact that mass production never became the dominant method of production in Norway. e. divided into two sectors: the export-oriented large-scale industries based on cheap hydro-electric energy (primarily electro-chemical and electro-metallurgical industries), and the small-firm sector producing consumption and capital goods for the domestic market (Asheim, 1988b). Even if this picture has been modified through a gradually increasing internationalization of the Norwegian 39 economy over the last thirty years, the industrial structure is still to a certain degree 'dualistic' with rather fundamental structural problems, and not properly adapted to international market conditions.
The social and technological context is changing: new behaviour patterns and new paradigms are emerging. These changes in the environment are perceived within the milieu through systems of representation. This enables the actors to detect the tensions and convergences which will, over time and according to their point of view, lead to either problems or opportunities. Representations provide a means of putting changes in the environment into immediate perspective. This leads to a direct relationship between the movements of the environment and the resources of the milieu, given that each actor integrates external developments and re-orders them in order to render them compatible and usable with regard to the elements of the milieu.
Innovation is thus the integration, into the milieu, of key resources. These resources may be generated by the development of the milieu itself or come from the exterior. The social and technological context is changing: new behaviour patterns and new paradigms are emerging. These changes in the environment are perceived within the milieu through systems of representation. This enables the actors to detect the tensions and convergences which will, over time and according to their point of view, lead to either problems or opportunities.