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Extra resources for The Families of the Monocotyledons: Structure, Evolution, and Taxonomy
To mediate so many different functions, the flavonoids must obviously show a large range of chemical diversity. This is mostly expressed by differences in the oxidation pattern on the same basic skeleton, but rearranged skeletons can also be found. Most of the flavonoids in plants are found as glycosides, often with glucose, but other sugars, such as galactose, rhamnose or arabinose, are also OH HO OH OMe HO HO OH HO cyanidin Glucose HO Fig. 8. Examples of flavonoids in the monocotyledons. See further in the text.
1. In Lemnaceae, a family that includes the smallest of all angiosperms, reduction affects the whole plant. The shoot is a flat plate, "frond", not differentiated into stem and leaf. The inflorescence consists of a monocarpellary pistil and one or two stamens, and there is nothing to show whether the number of flowers is one, two, or three. 2. In the Zosteraceae the flowers are distributed on a flattened axillary spike and have reached a state of extreme reduction, being naked and unisexual. The pollen is adapted to true (submerged) hydrogamy (unknown in dicotyledons)and lacks an exme.
Endosperm formation is nuclear. The carpels develop into follicles, which are fused into double or multiple fruits. There is no doubt that these plants have undergone reduction from states present in ancestral Poales, and that monomery in androecium and gynoecium is secondary to trimery. The reduced size and subjection to temporary submersion are probable reasons for the loss of silica bodies and the failure of advanced types of vessels to be developed. Whereas the Centrolepidaceae are unique in the order in their monomery, they agree with most Restionaceae in their bisporangiate (monothecous) anthers and lack of silica.