By Hongming Ma (auth.), Hongming Ma (eds.)
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Extra resources for The Images of Science Through Cultural Lenses: A Chinese Study on the Nature of Science
Scientific progress is achieved by conjectures and refutations. Popper’s criterion of demarcation suggests a strong self-critical spirit. A statement is genuinely scientific if and only if it is falsifiable. By means of this criterion, he labelled Einstein’s theory of relativity as ‘scientific’, whereas astrology, Marxist theories of history and Freudian psychoanalytic theories as ‘not scientific’. Popper’s criterion, however, encountered a series of challenges. Thomas Kuhn (1970) argues that astrology was seen as a pseudo-science not because it was unfalsifiable but because it “did not and could not engage in the sorts of activities that normally characterize all recognized sciences” (p.
These were not phenomena that uniquely belonged to the Spring and Autumn period. In fact, across dynasties, they were the main nonofficial ways of science and technology education existing side by side with specialised schools. Science and technological knowledge and skills inherited in these ways mainly included medicine, mathematics, and astronomy. The fourth form of education was usually seen within various schools of thought as a part of the schools’ academic and political activities. Knowledge and skills were passed on from the leader of a school to his followers.
15). In this sense, the static state is temporary – it is a state in which the interaction of the two forces reaches a dynamic balance. Although dynamic, the balance is important. Because only in a dynamically balanced state, can everything co-exist without mutually jeopardising each other (Jiang, 1991). This point is expressed thoroughly in the other dimension which is about ‘contradiction and harmony’. Yin and Yang represent any dualistic sides of a thing or a process. For example, there is masculine/feminine, big/small, strong/weak, hard/soft, inside/outside, static/dynamic, and so forth.