The Internationalization of the Japanese Economy by Chikara Higashi

By Chikara Higashi

Within the first, 1987, variation of this publication, Dr. Higashi and Dr. Lauter have mentioned and analyzed the preliminary levels of the internationalization approach The authors with Michio Watanabe at a reception in Hakone, Japan, 1988. xvi THE INTERNATIONALIZATION OF the japanese economic climate of the japanese economic system because it had advanced among 1985 and 1986. during this, the second one, version, they discover the advancements in the course of 1985-1988 and exhibit how the slow transformation of the financial system from export-Ied to family demand-Ied development has taken position, what the result of the trans­ formation approach are, what ultimate difficulties nonetheless need to be resolved, and what instructions the japanese economic climate may possibly soak up the longer term. whereas the transformation approach is on no account accomplished, Drs. Higashi and Lauter supply a large, policy-analysis established evaluate that permits the reader to appreciate not just the industrial but additionally the elemental political and social matters fascinated by the internationalization technique. during this feel, the authors keep away from the extraordinary positions that symbolize such a lot of of the guides on Japan this day and try to supply a pragmatic view of the alterations and the effect of those alterations. i think that this publication is a good and balanced illustration of occasions.

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Beginning in the mid-1960s, the yen was undervalued until 1971. During the following years, it was periodically undervalued to various degrees. 16. Ryutaro Komiya, "Industrial Policy's Generation Gap," Economic Eye. March 1986, pp. 22-24. 17. For a detailed discussion of MITI and its ro\c, see Chalmers Johnson, MITI and the Japanese Miracle (Stanford, CA: Standford Univcrsity Press, 1992). 18. cit. 19. , p. 117. Other important public tinancing institutions were the Industrial Bank of Japan and the Long-Term Credit Bank of Japan.

Japan's limited international orientation also complicated the bilateral trade conflicts. Strange as it may seem in light of the country's international competitiveness and the rem ar kable individual successes of its major corporations, the Japanese were not adroit in dealing with the outside world. For historical reasons, such as the long, self-imposed isolation under the shoguns, it took some time to develop and hone the skills needed to deal with the international community, some of whose members have on occasion taken advantage of the Japanese.

9. Bruce R. S. Competitiveness in the World Economy, Bruce R. Scott and George C. (Boston: Harvard Business School Press, 1985), p. 72. 10. , pp. 5-6. 11. , p. 93. 12. , p. 96. 13. A case in point is Brazil. In 1984 it passed a law that prohibits the import of small computers for eight years, and then it supplemented this action with an industry development plan. This United States responded with a Section 301 (unfair trade practices) action in the fall of 1985. The Brazilians, however, maintain that domestic law is sovereign and cannot be changed under foreign pressure.

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